• Media type: E-Article
  • Title: Changes in Carotid Artery Flow Velocities after Stent Implantation: A Fluid Dynamics Study with Laser Doppler Anemometry
  • Contributor: Greil, Oliver; Pflugbeil, Gottlieb; Weigand, Klaus; Weiß, Wolfgang; Liepsch, Dieter; Maurer, Peter C.; Berger, Hermann
  • Published in: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
  • Published: SAGE Publications, 2003
  • Language: English
  • DOI: 10.1177/152660280301000217
  • ISSN: 1526-6028; 1545-1550
  • Keywords: Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine ; Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging ; Surgery
  • Abstract: <jats:sec><jats:title>Purpose:</jats:title><jats:p> To study the influence of stent size and location on flow patterns in a physiological carotid model. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods:</jats:title><jats:p> Wallstents were positioned in silicon models of the carotid artery at various locations: 2 stents appropriately sized to the anatomy were placed in (1) the internal carotid artery (ICA) and (2) the ICA extending completely into the common carotid artery so as to cover the external carotid artery (ECA) orifice. Another 2 stents were placed in the ICA extending (1) partially and (2) completely into the bulb to simulate stent displacement and disproportion between stent size and the original vessel geometry. Measurements were performed with laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) using pulsatile flow conditions (Reynolds number=250; flow 0.431 L/min; ICA:ECA flow rate ratio 70:30) in hemodynamically relevant cross sections. The hemodynamic changes were analyzed with 1-dimensional flow profiles. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results:</jats:title><jats:p> With the stent in the ICA, no changes of the normal flow profile were seen. For stents positioned in the ICA and extending partially or completely into the carotid bulb, the flow behavior was affected by the resistance of the stent to flow in the ECA. Hemodynamically relevant disturbances were seen in the ICA and ECA, especially in the separation zones (regions along the walls just after a bifurcation, bend, or curve). The ICA:ECA flow rate ratios shifted from 70:30 to 71.3:28.7 and from 70:30 to 75.1:24.9, respectively, in the 2 malpositioned stent models. With the stent placed in the ICA extending completely into the CCA, the ICA:ECA flow rate ratio shifted from 70:30 to 72.4:27.6. In this configuration, there were no notable flow changes in the ICA, but a clear diminishing of the separation zones in the ECA separation zones. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions:</jats:title><jats:p> Anatomically correct positioning of appropriately sized stents does not lead to relevant flow disturbances in the ICA. In the ECA, depending on the position, size, and interstices of the stent, the physiological flow was considerably disturbed when any part of the stent covered the inflow of the vessel. Disturbances were seen when the stent was positioned into the bulb. For clinical application, stent location and size must be carefully determined so that the stent covers the bifurcation completely or is in the ICA only. </jats:p></jats:sec>
  • Description: <jats:sec><jats:title>Purpose:</jats:title><jats:p> To study the influence of stent size and location on flow patterns in a physiological carotid model. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods:</jats:title><jats:p> Wallstents were positioned in silicon models of the carotid artery at various locations: 2 stents appropriately sized to the anatomy were placed in (1) the internal carotid artery (ICA) and (2) the ICA extending completely into the common carotid artery so as to cover the external carotid artery (ECA) orifice. Another 2 stents were placed in the ICA extending (1) partially and (2) completely into the bulb to simulate stent displacement and disproportion between stent size and the original vessel geometry. Measurements were performed with laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) using pulsatile flow conditions (Reynolds number=250; flow 0.431 L/min; ICA:ECA flow rate ratio 70:30) in hemodynamically relevant cross sections. The hemodynamic changes were analyzed with 1-dimensional flow profiles. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results:</jats:title><jats:p> With the stent in the ICA, no changes of the normal flow profile were seen. For stents positioned in the ICA and extending partially or completely into the carotid bulb, the flow behavior was affected by the resistance of the stent to flow in the ECA. Hemodynamically relevant disturbances were seen in the ICA and ECA, especially in the separation zones (regions along the walls just after a bifurcation, bend, or curve). The ICA:ECA flow rate ratios shifted from 70:30 to 71.3:28.7 and from 70:30 to 75.1:24.9, respectively, in the 2 malpositioned stent models. With the stent placed in the ICA extending completely into the CCA, the ICA:ECA flow rate ratio shifted from 70:30 to 72.4:27.6. In this configuration, there were no notable flow changes in the ICA, but a clear diminishing of the separation zones in the ECA separation zones. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions:</jats:title><jats:p> Anatomically correct positioning of appropriately sized stents does not lead to relevant flow disturbances in the ICA. In the ECA, depending on the position, size, and interstices of the stent, the physiological flow was considerably disturbed when any part of the stent covered the inflow of the vessel. Disturbances were seen when the stent was positioned into the bulb. For clinical application, stent location and size must be carefully determined so that the stent covers the bifurcation completely or is in the ICA only. </jats:p></jats:sec>
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