• Medientyp: E-Artikel
  • Titel: Larvae of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa sanitize their host, the American cockroach, with a blend of antimicrobials
  • Beteiligte: Herzner, Gudrun; Schlecht, Anja; Dollhofer, Veronika; Parzefall, Christopher; Harrar, Klaus; Kreuzer, Andreas; Pilsl, Ludwig; Ruther, Joachim
  • Erschienen: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013
  • Erschienen in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Umfang: 1369-1374
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1213384110
  • ISSN: 0027-8424; 1091-6490
  • Schlagwörter: Multidisciplinary
  • Zusammenfassung: <jats:p> Food resources contaminated with spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms pose severe problems to all higher organisms. Here, we describe a food-hygienic strategy of the emerald cockroach wasp <jats:italic>Ampulex compressa</jats:italic> . The wasp larvae develop on and inside the American cockroach <jats:italic>Periplaneta americana</jats:italic> , a host that can harbor various putrefactive microbes, as well as human and insect pathogens. From <jats:italic>P. americana</jats:italic> , we isolated the Gram-negative bacterium <jats:italic>Serratia marcescens</jats:italic> , which is a potent entomopathogen that can rapidly kill insect larvae. It is also known as a food contaminant and as an opportunistic human pathogen. Using behavioral observations and chemical analyses, we demonstrated that <jats:italic>A. compressa</jats:italic> larvae impregnate their cockroach hosts from inside with large amounts of an oral secretion containing a blend of γ-lactones and isocoumarins with ( <jats:italic>R</jats:italic> )-(-)-mellein [( <jats:italic>R</jats:italic> )-(-)-3,4-diydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin] and micromolide [(4 <jats:italic>R</jats:italic> ,9 <jats:italic>Z</jats:italic> )-octadec-9-en-4-olide] as dominant components. We fractionated hexane extracts of the secretion and investigated the antimicrobial properties of the fraction containing the lactones and isocoumarins, as well as of synthetic ( <jats:italic>R</jats:italic> )-(-)-mellein and micromolide, against <jats:italic>S. marcescens</jats:italic> and a Gram-positive bacterium, <jats:italic>Staphylococcus hyicus</jats:italic> , in broth microdilution assays. The test fraction inhibited growth of both tested bacteria. The activity of the fraction against <jats:italic>S. marcescens</jats:italic> was explained by ( <jats:italic>R</jats:italic> )-(-)-mellein alone, and the activity against <jats:italic>S. hyicus</jats:italic> was explained by the combined action of ( <jats:italic>R</jats:italic> )-(-)-mellein and micromolide. Our data suggest that the specific combination of antimicrobials in the larval secretion provides an effective frontline defense against the unpredictable spectrum of microbes that <jats:italic>A. compressa</jats:italic> larvae may encounter during their development inside their cockroach hosts. </jats:p>
  • Beschreibung: <jats:p>
    Food resources contaminated with spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms pose severe problems to all higher organisms. Here, we describe a food-hygienic strategy of the emerald cockroach wasp
    <jats:italic>Ampulex compressa</jats:italic>
    . The wasp larvae develop on and inside the American cockroach
    <jats:italic>Periplaneta americana</jats:italic>
    , a host that can harbor various putrefactive microbes, as well as human and insect pathogens. From
    <jats:italic>P. americana</jats:italic>
    , we isolated the Gram-negative bacterium
    <jats:italic>Serratia marcescens</jats:italic>
    , which is a potent entomopathogen that can rapidly kill insect larvae. It is also known as a food contaminant and as an opportunistic human pathogen. Using behavioral observations and chemical analyses, we demonstrated that
    <jats:italic>A. compressa</jats:italic>
    larvae impregnate their cockroach hosts from inside with large amounts of an oral secretion containing a blend of γ-lactones and isocoumarins with (
    <jats:italic>R</jats:italic>
    )-(-)-mellein [(
    <jats:italic>R</jats:italic>
    )-(-)-3,4-diydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin] and micromolide [(4
    <jats:italic>R</jats:italic>
    ,9
    <jats:italic>Z</jats:italic>
    )-octadec-9-en-4-olide] as dominant components. We fractionated hexane extracts of the secretion and investigated the antimicrobial properties of the fraction containing the lactones and isocoumarins, as well as of synthetic (
    <jats:italic>R</jats:italic>
    )-(-)-mellein and micromolide, against
    <jats:italic>S. marcescens</jats:italic>
    and a Gram-positive bacterium,
    <jats:italic>Staphylococcus hyicus</jats:italic>
    , in broth microdilution assays. The test fraction inhibited growth of both tested bacteria. The activity of the fraction against
    <jats:italic>S. marcescens</jats:italic>
    was explained by (
    <jats:italic>R</jats:italic>
    )-(-)-mellein alone, and the activity against
    <jats:italic>S. hyicus</jats:italic>
    was explained by the combined action of (
    <jats:italic>R</jats:italic>
    )-(-)-mellein and micromolide. Our data suggest that the specific combination of antimicrobials in the larval secretion provides an effective frontline defense against the unpredictable spectrum of microbes that
    <jats:italic>A. compressa</jats:italic>
    larvae may encounter during their development inside their cockroach hosts.
    </jats:p>
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